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Road estimation and fuel optimal control of an off-road vehicle

This paper explores the possibility to use optimal control to establish a Pareto front of fuel consumption vs cycle time for a transport mission with an articulated hauler. The Pareto front can be utilised to optimise the hauler transport mission on its own or as a part in a larger optimal control problem involving several construction machines working together on a site transporting material at a set production rate. While rolling resistance is a major energy consumer in an articulated hauler’s transport, the effect of varying rolling resistance is included in the developed optimisation algorithm. A method utilising Extended Kalman Filter, Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoothing and sensor fusion is formulated in order to calculate the road related data needed in the optimisation algorithm. A potential fuel efficiency improvement, verified by computer simulations, of up to 9% was found in the example transport mission where the optimal gear and speed trajectory were followed instead of driving towards a mean speed target to achieve an equal cycle time for the transport mission.

Jörgen Albrektsson and Jan Åslund


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